Injection molding machine is divided into 2 units i.e. a clamping unit and an injection unit.
The functions of the clamping unit are opening and closing a die, and the ejection of products. There are 2 types of clamping methods, namely the toggle type shown in the figure below and the straight-hydraulic type in which a mold is directly opened and closed with a hydraulic cylinder.
The functions of the injection unit are to melt plastic by heat and then to inject molten plastic into a mold.
The screw is rotated to melt plastic introduced from the hopper and to accumulate molten plastic in front of the screw ( to be called metering ) . After the required amount of molten plastic is accumulated, injection process is stared.
While molten plastic is flowing in a mold, the machine controls the moving speed of the screw, or injection speed. On the other hand, it controls dwell pressure after molten plastic fills out cavities.
The position of change from speed control to pressure control is set at the point where either screw position or injection pressure reaches a certain fixed value.